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Before PCB Assembly – What PCB Type Is Best Suited For Your Design

Printed circuit boards are the basic components of any electric device and computer system. It is like their very own skeleton as the other components are laid up on them. However, as varied as these electric systems’ functions are, there are different types of printed circuit board (each with its own PCB assembly process). It is crucial to know what type you should use for a certain function or system. Let’s see below the different types there are and when they are best suited to use.

Single-sided Printed Circuit Boards

Single-sided Printed Circuit BoardsThese are the most basic type of printed circuit boards. These contain just one conductive layer, usually copper foil. As such, they have restricted use since this causes them to have low densities. However, these are of low costs and are best used for either simple products or products to be reproduced in high volume.

Double-sided Printed Circuit Boards

Double-sided Printed Circuit BoardsDouble-sided printed circuit boards would be the most common type of printed circuit boards. They have the ability to cross paths from top layer to bottom layer, thus, increasing, in a great manner, the design’s flexibility. This type also causes an increase in circuit densities. Relatively, this type of board is low cost (requiring a rather simple PCB assembly process) and allows intermediate level of circuit complexity.

Multilayer Printed Circuit Boards

Multilayer Printed Circuit BoardsThese still have a double sided configuration, however, they further increase the complexity, as well as density, of printed circuit board designs, since they have added additional layers on their top and bottom ones. You can reach up to almost thirty layers in this multilayer printed circuit board configuration. These allow production of very dense and highly complex designs. More often than not, these layers are used to supply the circuit with power and even reduce the electromagnetic interference, or accidental jumpers, emitted by designs.

Aluminum Backed Printed Circuit Boards

Typically used in high powered applications, aluminum backed printed circuit boards are the optimal solution to issues concerning thermal heat dissolution. They consist of thin circuit layer laid and adhered to thick aluminum backing in such a way that they become thermally conductive. This makes them capable of keeping high power components cool even under heavy loads. Aluminum backed printed circuit boards are commonly found in high power LED products and switching power supplies. They also offer high levels of mechanical rigidity and even low levels of thermal expansion.

Rigidified Flexible Printed Circuit Boards

Rigidified flexible printed circuit boards allows a portion not made to be bent to be protected while still allowing flexibility to majority of its portions. You don’t need two different types of board as you can use this as basis for your design. They come in more lighter and can even fit into tight housings than the other types of printed circuit boards. So if your design is three dimensional and you’d want to use a single board, this is the way to go.

Flex-ridged Printed Circuit Boards

Flex-ridged Printed Circuit BoardsThese allows interconnected flexible printed circuit boards to be connected to a rigid multilayer printed circuit board, permanently – through a unique PCB assembly process. These are typically used when the you want to uncomplicated a complex design by including the flexible interconnected printed circuit board in the fabricated one. Therefore, using this type of board allows the complete design to be ready soon after they are received from fabricator. Like rigidified flexible printed circuit board, they can also be used for creating three dimensional designs having multiple rigid and flexible sections.

There are many types to choose from and making the decision of which to use is very crucial — not to mention exhaustive. Luckily there are available services that provide you with ready to use printed circuit boards, or can even purpose built one for you. Some services can also be reached online, such as Imagineering Inc., making it easier for you to get your PCB assembly done — instant and high quality!

Safety Talks on Health at the Workplace

Safety talks revolve around the concept of keeping the employees safe from any form of harm and are also geared towards the prevention of spread of diseases and germs. The most commonly spread disease in the workplace is influenza and other common colds and coughs. It is important to teach the employees about healthy and preventive practices that will help minimize the spread of flu infection.

Your safety talks must include safety topics on the prevention and spread of flu from one employee to another. Here are some ideas on how to deliver safety meetings on this safety topic:

Flu Prevention

The flu has been once underestimated and taken for a simple cold with fever. However, with the mutation of various flu virus strains, the flu has become one of the serious contagious diseases that can be deadly when not detected and treated appropriately. Due to the 2009 to 2010 flu pandemic of the H1N1 flu virus strain, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that every workplace should practice flu prevention actions to keep employees safe from such deadly flu strains. The recommended preventive actions include flu vaccination and altering of the chain of disease transmission.


When delivering information about flu vaccination in one of your safety talks, you should emphasize the importance of getting the flu shot to your employees. You must highlight the following points:

– Annual flu vaccinations are recommended by the CDC to ensure optimum protection from the disease. The existing flu vaccines are effective against the most common virus strains known by scientists and researchers to infect people.

– Anyone from six months of age can receive the shot once the seasonal vaccinations start. Young children, pregnant women, people with chronic health conditions, and people older than 65 years are especially susceptible to the disease. Vaccination of these people is very important to prevent the acquisition of severe flu illness.

– People who are caring for children younger than six months should be vaccinated as this population of children are too young to receive the shot.

– Health care workers should also be vaccinated to prevent the acquisition of the disease from their high-risk patients.

In teaching your employees how to alter or break the chain of disease transmission, you must identify the important practices or habits that will help stop the spread of flu virus and other disease-causing germs:

– Always cover the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Use tissue paper rather than handkerchiefs when covering or catching secretions. Properly dispose them after use.

– Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water especially after sneezing or coughing secretions. Use sanitizers or alcohol rubs if soap and water are not available.

– Wash hands after touching things that are exposed or used by the public like shopping carts, hand rails, restrooms, and other public fixtures. Hand-washing should also be practiced after shaking hands with someone else, and before and after eating or smoking.

– It is important to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth because your hands might transfer or transmit disease-causing germs and introduce them into your body and to someone else.

However and whenever you choose to deliver your safety talks on flu prevention, you must make sure that your people clearly understand the important details. You will also learn more things from  motivational-speaker-success. You can help them get vaccinated by coordinating with healthcare facilities near your workplace and arranging for their annual or seasonal schedule. You must also strictly implement the preventive measures to avoid unhealthy practices or risky habits of some employees.

Remember that the prevention of diseases will need the cooperation and coordination of everybody. Set a good example and make sure that every case of illnesses in the workplace is detected and appropriately managed.

Custom Coins Creation

When people hear the words challenge coins, they always associate these to military people. However, anyone can order and have these coins customized for various reasons. Nowadays, many organizations know that giving out custom coins has an impact on the persons receiving the coins. These coins have three universal uses aside from being a member of the military.

Membership emblem

Emblem coins contain images and details that depict the type of the organization. Such images may contain the logo, date of organization and organization name. In some instances, details may include the member’s name, membership date, and the organization’s slogan.

In creating custom challenge coins, we make sure that the coins reflect the organizational values of our customers. With the right images and details, we ensure that the coin expresses the support of the organization to their members.

These coins promote the mission of the organization to their existing members and to potential members. Thus, emblem coins must be accurate despite being artistic.

Gesture of Gratitude

When people want to express gratitude to the persons they love, they come to us to create these coins. These tokens are the hardest to design. It has to convey appreciation without being overly dramatic.

With simple words and the name of the awardees, we create a challenge coin that will make the persons receiving it feel appreciated and loved.


Many people collect and exchange custom coins with other people. Usually, collectible coins are exchanged between relatives, friends or families. A few persons order challenge coins and distribute them to people they know. People appreciate a challenge coin when you have it customize for them. The effort of choosing a design for them matters. The personalized design makes the coin collectibles special.

challenge coins

In creating these different types of coin, we use different methods. These methods are die-casting and die striking.

Die-casting Process

This process melts the metal in creating the custom coins. Then, the melted metal is poured and molded on a cast. The cast contains the design of the coins. This process is applicable for coins with complex designs and with images that require intricate details.

Military challenge coins undergo a die-casting process. The casting process produces coins that are firmer, thus, making them withstand extreme wear-and-tear conditions. Besides, the die-casted military coins have a smoother surface. The letters have a more smooth-edged finish.

The disadvantage of the die-casting process is the rendering. The majority of the die-casted challenge coins are produced in 2D levels. Although 3D coins are feasible, producing them involves an elaborate molding, which makes these coins costlier to produce.

Another disadvantage of a die-casting process is the production cost. We need to make individual molds for every coin. Thus, to lower production cost, we recommend that you order in bulk. If you are planning to order hundreds or thousands of custom coins, you may get a discount from

Die striking Process

In a die striking process, we produce coins in levels. First, we use a machine to stamp the design on the steel material. If the design is one-dimensional only, the process stops here. However, if the design involves more than one dimension, we produce the second and third level. These levels are “glued” together to make the overall design. If you use a magnification tool, you can see the “step” like finishing on the letters and images.

Die striking process is applicable on coins with simple to medium complex designs. Moreover, this process is used on coins that are distributed as membership emblem, and tokens.

Die struck coins are slightly thicker. They are also heavier than die-casted coins. If you are planning to order coins in small numbers, we use die struck method for affordability.

Depending on your purpose and design requirements, we use die-casting or die striking in creating your custom coins. Die-casted coins last longer. This is the reason military coins are die-casted. However, this method is costly. To offset the production cost, we recommend mass producing the coins. Die striking method, on the other hand, offers low production costs.

How GW-501516 Works

Scientists have found the wonder chemical GW-501516 that is increasingly becoming popular in the athletic field, despite its banned status. Many athletes buy gw-501516 because it burns stored fats, develops muscle mass, elevates the level of good cholesterol and reduces the level of bad cholesterol.

Mechanism of Action

GW-501516 stimulates the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARδ). Its action is similar to the effects of exercise without the sweat.

A clinical study shows adult mice that ingested the drug displayed nearly twice the endurance from the level prior to the experiment.

Benefits of the Chemical GW-501516

The main appeal of the drug to athletes is the increase in endurance. Reports show that consumers buy gw-501516 because it brings remarkable results with a daily dose of 10-20 mg. It lures the athletes by its potential to give them an advantage in the sports arena.

ChemicalsAnother reason for its popularity is its ability to dissolve fats fast while retaining your muscles. Increasing the dosage to 20 mgs per day, at least 30 minutes prior to exercise will hasten the fat loss mechanism. For maximum results, take one dose of the drug in the morning and another after 12 hours.

GW-501516 prevents onset of diabetes by increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. The increase of free fatty acids in the circulation stimulates inflammatory system resulting in hindrance to insulin absorption.

It also shows a potential prevention of diseases associated with neurologic inflammation such as dementia and Alzheimer.

Heart disease can be due to faulty synthesis of fatty acids and carbohydrates in the body. Since GW-501516 aids the body in the proper metabolism, thereby preventing cardiovascular problems.

A study on its role in repairing the cells of an injured liver has shown promising results. Research is continuous in the hope of discovering the therapeutic properties of GW-501516.

Side-Effects of GW-501516

The issue on the side-effects of the drug is controversial. Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) claims that it causes tumor development in rats. On the contrary, there is no evidence of harmful reactions with human trials. Some unfavorable effects include palpitations and irregular heartbeat.

Many online vendors offer easy access for people to buy gw-501516. It is important for researchers to identify and transact with legitimate sources. The key to getting this drug without the hassles and legal impediments is to conduct a thorough review of the available providers. Another strategy is to visit online forums to view comments and possible complaints from customers. It is also essential to check the reputation of the company and their years of existence in the business. The website should also have informative and interactive features for the users. Furthermore, it should be capable of providing safe and prompt delivery of the chemical. You should check if their services are accessible even after the sales transaction.

The unregulated market for several hormones and drug of this kind are thriving because there are people willing to take the risk. Most of the sites intend to sell the products to laboratory researchers and scientists, but they cater to individuals buying the investigational drugs. Despite the undetermined effects on humans, some people are ready to take their chances. Reports say that there are buyers who try the chemical with a mouse for a few weeks before ingesting it.

Many concerned groups advocate strict policies on the distribution of the research chemicals. According to them, when customers buy gw-501516, they should undergo screening. This should include the nature of work or business to ensure that the chemical will only be for laboratory research purposes.

Government agencies have issued disapproval in the use of GW-501516. The increasing incidence of experimenting with the drug is a pressing concern for anti-doping organizations.